JEWISH BIOMEDICAL & LIFE SCIENTISTS 
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SHORT LIST
  • Sidney Altman
  • Julius Axelrod
  • David Baltimore
  • Robert Bárány
  • Baruj Benacerraf
  • Seymour Benzer
  • Paul Berg
  • Bruce Beutler
  • Konrad Bloch
  • Baruch Blumberg
  • Sydney Brenner
  • Michael Brown
  • Melvin Calvin
  • Sir Ernst Chain
  • Erwin Chargaff
  • Stanley H. Cohen
  • Stanley N. Cohen
  • Gerty Cori
  • Carl Djerassi
  • Gerald Edelman
  • Paul Ehrlich
  • Gertrude Elion
  • Boris Ephrussi
  • Joseph Erlanger
  • Edmond Fischer 3
  • Rosalind Franklin
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Casimir Funk
  • Robert Furchgott
  • Walter Gilbert
  • Alfred G. Gilman
  • Joseph Goldstein
  • Waldemar Haffkine
  • Viktor Hamburger
  • Felix Haurowitz
  • Michael Heidelberger
  • George de Hevesy
  • H. Robert Horvitz
  • Alick Issacs
  • François Jacob
  • Eric Kandel
  • Sir Bernard Katz
  • George Klein
  • Sir Aaron Klug
  • Arthur Kornberg
  • Roger Kornberg
  • Sir Hans Krebs
  • Karl Landsteiner
  • Joshua Lederberg
  • Robert Lefkowitz
  • Phoebus Levene
  • Rita Levi-Montalcini
  • Arnold Levine
  • Richard Lewisohn
  • Fritz Lipmann
  • Jacques Loeb
  • Otto Loewi
  • Salvador Luria
  • André Lwoff
  • Élie Metchnikoff 6
  • Otto Meyerhof
  • César Milstein
  • Hermann Muller 8
  • Daniel Nathans
  • Marshall Nirenberg
  • Sir Max Perutz
  • Gregory Pincus
  • Stanley Prusiner
  • Tadeus Reichstein
  • Alexander Rich
  • Martin Rodbell
  • James Rothman
  • Albert Sabin
  • Jonas Salk
  • Randy Schekman
  • Solomon Snyder
  • Sol Spiegelman
  • Ralph Steinman
  • Sir John Vane 13
  • Harold Varmus
  • Bert Vogelstein
  • Selman Waksman
  • George Wald
  • Otto Warburg 14
  • August von Wassermann
  • Robert Weinberg
  • Charles Weissmann
  • Richard Willstätter
  • Rosalyn Yalow
  • Charles Yanofsky
  • Ada Yonath
LONG LIST
  • Bruce Alberts
  • Sidney Altman
  • Amatus Lusitanus
  • Bruce Ames
  • Christian Anfinsen 1
  • Daniel Arnon
  • Ruth Arnon
  • Selmar Ascheim
  • Charlotte Auerbach
  • Leopold Auerbach
  • Gerald Aurbach
  • Richard Axel
  • Julius Axelrod
  • David Baltimore
  • Robert Bárány
  • Moses Barron
  • Jacqueline Barton
  • Baruj Benacerraf
  • Carl Benda
  • Reinhold Benesch
  • Ruth Benesch
  • Seymour Benzer
  • Isaac Berenblum
  • Lev (Leo) Berg
  • Paul Berg
  • Max Bergmann
  • Frederick Bernheim
  • Hippolyte Bernheim
  • Alan Bernstein
  • Julius Bernstein
  • Solomon Berson
  • Alexandre Besredka
  • Bruce Beutler
  • Ernest Beutler
  • Konrad Bloch
  • Barry Bloom
  • Floyd Bloom
  • Jeffrey Bluestone
  • Baruch Blumberg
  • David Bodian
  • Sir Walter Bodmer 
  • David Botstein
  • Eugene Braunwald
  • Sydney Brenner
  • Josef Breuer
  • Samuel Broder
  • Bernard Brodie
  • Donald Brown
  • Michael Brown
  • Gustav Bucky
  • Leo Buerger
  • Melvin Calvin
  • Howard Cedar
  • Sir Ernst Chain
  • Martin Chalfie
  • Erwin Chargaff
  • Aaron Ciechanover
  • Irun Cohen
  • Sir Philip Cohen
  • Stanley H. Cohen
  • Stanley N. Cohen
  • Edwin Cohn
  • Ferdinand Cohn
  • Mildred Cohn
  • Julius Cohnheim
  • Frank Colton
  • Barry Commoner
  • Jerome Conn
  • Gerty Cori
  • Burrill Crohn
  • William Dameshek
  • Samuel Danishefsky
  • Norman Davidson
  • Louis Diamond
  • Carl Djerassi
  • Isaac Djerassi
  • Julius Donath
  • Deborah Doniach
  • Brian Druker
  • Harry Eagle
  • Gerald Edelman
  • Paul Ehrlich
  • Paul R. Ehrlich
  • Arthur Eichengrun
  • Alfred Einhorn
  • Lawrence Einhorn
  • Herman Eisen
  • Thomas Eisner 2
  • Gertrude Elion
  • Walter Elsasser
  • Gustav Embden
  • Boris Ephrussi
  • Sir Anthony Epstein
  • Joseph Erlanger
  • Lars Ernster
  • Ronald Evans
  • Stanley Falkow
  • Isidor Fankuchen
  • Sidney Farber
  • Alvin Feinstein
  • Marc Feldmann
  • Gary Felsenfeld
  • Alan Fersht
  • Gerald Fink
  • Richard Finkelstein
  • Maxwell Finland
  • Ronald Finn
  • Andrew Fire
  • Edmond Fischer 3
  • Bernard Fisher
  • Robert D. Fleischmann
  • Simon Flexner
  • M. Judah Folkman
  • Herbert Fox
  • Sidney Fox
  • Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat
  • James Franck
  • Rosalind Franklin
  • Samuel Freedman
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Jules Freund
  • Leopold Freund
  • Irwin Fridovich
  • Josef Fried
  • Jeffrey Friedman
  • Charlotte Friend
  • Irving Fritz
  • Joseph Fruton
  • Casimir Funk 4
  • Robert Furchgott
  • Charles Gerhardt
  • Richard Gershon
  • Jacob Gershon-Cohen
  • Norman Geschwind
  • Walter Gilbert
  • Alfred Gilman
  • Alfred G. Gilman
  • Phil Gold
  • Joseph Goldberger
  • Maurice W. Goldblatt
  • Patricia Goldman-Rakic
  • Richard Goldschmidt
  • Avram Goldstein
  • Joseph Goldstein
  • Kurt Goldstein
  • Corey Goodman
  • Louis Goodman
  • Stephen Jay Gould
  • Michael Greenberg
  • Baroness Susan Greenfield
  • Paul Greengard
  • Ludwik Gross
  • Michael Grunstein
  • Alexander Gutman
  • Waldemar Haffkine
  • Viktor Hamburger
  • Philip Handler
  • Sir Henry Harris
  • Stephen Harrison
  • William Zev Hassid
  • Herbert Hauptman
  • Felix Haurowitz
  • Georges Hayem
  • Leonard Hayflick
  • Selig Hecht
  • Michael Heidelberger
  • Rudolf Heidenhain
  • Henry Heimlich
  • Richard Held
  • Jacob Henle
  • Ludimar Hermann
  • Avram Hershko
  • Leonard Herzenberg
  • Alfred Hess
  • George de Hevesy
  • Norbert Hirschhorn
  • Basil Hirschowitz
  • Jack Hirsh
  • Bernard Horecker
  • H. Robert Horvitz
  • Arthur Horwich
  • Jerome Horwitz
  • Libbie Hyman
  • Aaron Ismach
  • Isaac Israeli (Isaac Judaeus)
  • Alick Issacs
  • François Jacob
  • Abraham Jacobi
  • Walter Jacobs
  • Elvin Kabat
  • Herman Kalckar
  • Martin Kamen
  • Eric Kandel
  • Adrian Kantrowitz
  • Henry Kaplan
  • Moritz Kaposi
  • Michael Karin
  • Jerome Karle
  • Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir
  • Aharon Katchalsky-Katzir
  • Sir Bernard Katz
  • Samuel Katz
  • Stuart Kauffman
  • David Keilin
  • Seymour Kety
  • Marc Kirschner
  • Richard Klausner
  • Edmund Klein
  • George Klein
  • Emmy Klieneberger-Nobel
  • Nathan Kline
  • Sir Aaron Klug
  • Carl Koller
  • Richard Kolodner
  • Henry Koplik
  • Arthur Kornberg
  • Sir Hans Kornberg
  • Roger Kornberg
  • Daniel Koshland, Jr.
  • Hans Kosterlitz
  • Sir Hans Krebs
  • Hugo Kronecker
  • Saul Krugman
  • Moses Kunitz
  • Eric Lander
  • Karl Landsteiner
  • Robert Langer
  • Phillip Leder
  • Esther Lederberg
  • Joshua Lederberg
  • Robert Lefkowitz
  • Richard Lerner
  • Jerome Lettvin
  • Phoebus Levene
  • Giuseppe Levi
  • Simon Levin
  • Alexander Levitzki
  • Rita Levi-Montalcini
  • Arnold Levine
  • Michael Levine
  • Philip Levine
  • Rachmiel Levine
  • Cyrus Levinthal
  • Michael Levitt
  • Richard Lewisohn
  • Richard Lewontin
  • David Lipman
  • Fritz Lipmann
  • Stephen Lippard
  • Harvey Lodish
  • Jacques Loeb
  • Otto Loewi
  • Cesare Lombroso
  • Irving London
  • Richard Losick
  • Alfred Lotka 5
  • Alexander Luria
  • Salvador Luria
  • André Lwoff
  • Boris Magasanik
  • Adolf Magnus-Levy
  • Moses Maimonides
  • Lynn Margulis
  • Paul Marks
  • Alton Meister
  • Matthew Meselson
  • Élie Metchnikoff 6
  • Karl Meyer
  • Otto Meyerhof
  • Elliot Meyerowitz
  • Leonor Michaelis
  • Felix Milgrom
  • Stanley L. Miller
  • Irving Millman
  • César Milstein
  • Oskar Minkowski
  • Beatrice Mintz
  • Alfred Mirsky
  • Salvador Moncada 7
  • Julius Morgenroth
  • Harold Morowitz
  • Hermann Muller 8
  • Hermann Munk
  • David Nachmansohn
  • David Nalin
  • Daniel Nathans
  • Philip Needleman
  • Albert Neisser
  • Carl Neuberg
  • Albert Neuberger
  • Elizabeth Neufeld
  • Hans Neurath
  • Marshall Nirenberg
  • Sir Gustav Nossal 9
  • Leslie Orgel
  • Garcia da Orta
  • Alwin Pappenheimer
  • Jacob Parnas
  • Ira Pastan
  • Sheldon Penman
  • Sir Max Perutz
  • Arnold Pick
  • Ernst Pick
  • Gregory Pincus
  • Stanley Plotkin
  • Adam Politzer
  • Carl Prausnitz 10
  • Karl Pribram
  • Ilya Prigogine
  • Nathaniel Pringsheim
  • Stanley Prusiner
  • Mark Ptashne
  • Theodore Puck
  • Juda Quastel
  • Efraim Racker
  • Henry Rappaport
  • Sarah Ratner
  • Aharon Razin
  • Tadeus Reichstein
  • Robert Remak
  • Alexander Rich
  • Arnold Rich
  • David Rittenberg
  • John Robbins
  • Martin Rodbell
  • Ivan Roitt
  • Moritz Romberg
  • Michael Rosbash
  • Harry Rose
  • Irwin Rose
  • Saul Roseman
  • Robert Rosen
  • Milton Rosenau
  • Barnett Rosenberg
  • Saul Rosenberg
  • Steven Rosenberg
  • Michael Rosenfeld
  • Michael Rossmann 11
  • Jesse Roth
  • James Rothman
  • Aser Rothstein
  • Samuel Ruben
  • Benjamin Rubin
  • Gerald Rubin
  • Harry Rubin
  • Gary Ruvkun
  • Albert Sabin
  • David Sachar
  • Bernard Sachs
  • Leo Sachs
  • Ruth Sager
  • Albert Salamon
  • Jonas Salk
  • Stanley Sarnoff
  • Lewis Sarett 12
  • Randy Schekman
  • Bela Schick
  • Joseph Schlessinger
  • Stuart Schlossman
  • Rachel Schneerson
  • Rudolph Schoenheimer
  • Edward Scolnick
  • Michael Sela
  • Lucy Shapiro
  • Shepard Shapiro
  • Aaron Shatkin
  • Carla Shatz
  • Alan Sher
  • Philip Siekevitz
  • Irving Sigal
  • Paul Sigler
  • Louis Siminovitch
  • Maxine Singer
  • Robert Sinsheimer
  • Solomon Snyder
  • Alfred Sommer
  • Franz Sondheimer
  • Nahum Sonenberg
  • Tracy Sonneborn
  • Sol Spiegelman
  • Michael Sporn
  • Meir Stampfer
  • William Stein
  • Ralph Steinman
  • Gunther Stent
  • Curt Stern
  • Leo Sternbach
  • Benedict Stilling
  • Gilbert Stork
  • Jack Strominger
  • Lubert Stryer
  • Leo Szilard
  • Howard Temin
  • Max Tishler
  • Isidor Traube
  • Ludwig Traube
  • Sidney Udenfriend
  • Gabriel Valentin
  • Sir John Vane 13
  • Harold Varmus
  • Alexander Varshavsky
  • Ján Vilček
  • Bert Vogelstein
  • Vito Volterra
  • Salome Waelsch
  • Selman Waksman
  • George Wald
  • Otto Warburg 14
  • Arieh Warshel
  • August von Wassermann
  • Carl Weigert
  • Richard Weil
  • Robert Weinberg
  • Georges Weiss
  • Paul Weiss
  • Irving Weissman
  • Charles Weissmann
  • Georges Fernand Widal
  • Alexander Wiener
  • Michael Wigler
  • Meir Wilchek
  • Richard Willstätter
  • Maxwell Wintrobe
  • Ernest Witebsky
  • Elie Wollman
  • Lewis Wolpert
  • Michael Woolfson
  • Richard Wurtman
  • Ernst Wynder
  • Harry Yale
  • Rosalyn Yalow
  • Charles Yanofsky
  • Ada Yonath
  • Zacutus Lusitanus
  • Amotz Zahavi
  • Anatol Zhabotinsky
  • Norton Zinder
  • Bernhard Zondek
  • Lord Solly Zuckerman
  • Emile Zuckerkandl
  • Nathan Zuntz
NOTES
1. Convert to Judaism. See next-to-last paragraph: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/KK.
2. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.

3.
Jewish father, non-Jewish mother, according to a follow-up dispatch issued by the Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA)  several days after publication of its October 14, 1992 story on that year's Nobel Prizes, written by Tom Tugend.  Fischer is a member of the Board of Governors of the Weizmann Institute.
4. Information elsewhere on the Web contains the claim that Casimir Funk was not Jewish.  Among the many references which describe Funk as having been Jewish is Who's Who in World Jewry 1965: A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, edited by Harry Schneiderman and I.J. Carmin Karpman (McKay, New York, 1965, p. 417).  This reference is significant in this context since all of the biographical profiles that it contains were based on data supplied by the profiled individuals themselves, and later approved by them. 
5. Alfred Lotka was born in 1880 in Lemberg, Austria-Poland to parents who were missionaries associated with the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews.   Many of these missionaries, including Lotka's father, were converted Jews themselves.  In his History of the  London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews (London, 1908), W. T. Gidney describes Jacob Lotka (the father of Alfred Lotka) as a "Polish Israelite" (p. 354) and as a "Hebrew Christian" (p. 614).   Jacob (also known as Jacques) Lotka headed the Society's station in Lemberg in the years 1873-1881 and later undertook missions to Jewish communities in Persia, Russia, and Hungary. No information is available to us at present concerning the mother of Alfred Lotka.
6. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see first paragraph of biography: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/mechnikov.html.
7.
Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; identifies as a Jew, according to an interview in Candid Science II: Conversations with Famous Biomedical Scientists, by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 567).
8. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father; see first paragraph of biography: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1946/muller.html.
9. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother; see http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/car/1998/2/wtmar12.htm.

10. Jewish maternal grandparents and paternal grandfather, non-Jewish paternal grandmother.
11. Jewish mother, non-Jewish father according to interview in Bitter Prerequisites: A Faculty for Survival from Nazi Terror, by William Laird Kleine-Ahlbrandt (Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, IN, 2001, p. 48).  See also http://www.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/010216.Nat.Ahlbrandt.book.html.
12. Jewish father (poet and naturalist Lew Sarett, born Lewis Saretsky), non-Jewish mother.

13.
Jewish father, non-Jewish mother, according to an interview published in Candid Science II, by István Hargittai (Imperial College Press, London, 2002, p. 562).
14. Jewish father, non-Jewish mother.



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